Overtraining is a physical, behavioral, and emotional condition that occurs when the volume and intensity of the training program exceeds the recovery capacity. Overtraining causes progress to stop, moreover, it is possible to reduce strength indicators and mass. Overtraining is one of the most common bodybuilding problems, but it can affect both sprinters and other athletes.
Reasons for overtraining
Overtraining occurs more often in beginners who put an unprepared body under serious stress, as well as in professionals who have reduced progress and seek to correct the situation by increasing the load. The main reason is an excessive desire for your sports goals. Many people tend to believe that the more they “give it” in their training, the greater their results will be, but this is an absolute misconception. Bodybuilding and fitness requires a special approach, which should be in harmony with the human physiology. Like medicine, sports can treat and cause disorders, the question is only in the dose.
Recently, there have been reports that overtraining can be a consequence of sports addiction. According to this theory, during training and immediately after it, special substances are secreted into the blood – endorphins, which cause a feeling of euphoria and joy. Some people note a particularly positive state after training, and in the absence of the latter, a state similar to drug withdrawal is observed: a drop in mood, obsessive attraction to the gym, and so on. A person tries to visit the gym more often, and eventually overtraining occurs.
In the work of S. Petibois, disorders of carbohydrate metabolism are even considered as one of the actual causal factors of the state of overtraining in athletes in sports aimed at the predominant development of endurance.
Physiology of overtraining
The growth of results in strength and physical condition occurs during the recovery period after training (see SupercompensationThis process takes anywhere from 24 hours to several days. According to some data, it takes up to 1 month to fully restore muscle tissue after high-intensity training. If there is an imbalance between the amount of training and the recovery time, the athlete enters a state of training plateau, and then there is a decrease in all sports indicators. A mild degree of overtraining requires several days of rest or reduced training activity until the athlete’s physical condition is fully restored. If you allow the development of a more severe degree, then the symptoms will steadily progress, and the athlete’s condition will worsen, and it may take several weeks or even months to recover.
The following factors contribute to the occurrence of overtraining: violation of the body’s circadian rhythm, diseases, fatigue at work, menstruation, poor nutrition, etc. Especially often overtraining develops in bodybuilders, whose specific training consists in high loads, especially during drying cycles.